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Anaplasma

This article explores the diagnosis and treatment of Anaplasmosis, a tick borne illness. It is part three of the four part series “Four Tickborne Diseases: Lyme Disease, Ehrlichiosis, Anaplasmosis and Babesiosis” .


Diagnosis can be challenging, as the tick bite may not have been noticed, clinical symptoms may be non-specific, and laboratory confirmation of infection can be problematic, especially early in the course of these diseases. At times clinicians may need to treat on clinical suspicion alone.


Written for the Curious (Non-Medical) Reader

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ANAPLASMOSIS


By Stuart M. Caplen, MD

[3]

Anaplasmosis, also known as human granulocytic anaplasmosis, is a tickborne disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum.


Blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in the eastern United States, and western blacklegged ticks, Ixodes pacificus, on the West Coast are the main causes of infection. Coinfections with other tickborne illness such as Lyme disease have been reported. Infections have occasionally been reported through blood transfusion and organ donation.[32]


Peak transmission is during June to November. Two peaks of increased case reporting usually occur, with the first peak during June–July and a smaller peak during October-November. ...


Read more about:


  • Signs and Symptoms of Early Illness of Anaplasmosis

  • Late Illness Symptoms of Anaplasmosis

  • Laboratory Findings in Anaplasmosis

  • Testing for Anaplasmosis

  • Treatment of Anaplasmosis


Read PART 1 - Lyme Disease | PART 2 - Ehrlichiosis | PART 3 - Anaplasmosis | PART 4 - Babesia

 

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The conclusion to Part 1-4 of this article is available in the FibonacciLIBRARY


The CME version of this article is available for the medical community with an online CME test in the APP.


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ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Stuart M. Caplen, MD, FACEP, MSM

Dr. Caplen is a retired emergency medicine physician and former emergency department medical director, who also has a Master of Science in Management degree, and green belt certification in Lean/Six Sigma.


REFERENCES

[3] Tickborne Diseases of the United States, CDC, last reviewed September 22, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ticks/tickbornediseases/overview.html


[15] Tickborne Diseases of the United States, CDC, 5th edition 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ticks/tickbornediseases/TickborneDiseases-P.pdf


[15A] Signs and Symptoms of Untreated Lyme Disease, CDC, last reviewed: January 15, 2021. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/signs_symptoms/index.html


[16] Photo credits: Alison Young, Taryn Holman, Yevgeniy Balagula/Dermatlas.org, Lyme Disease Rashes and Look-alikes, CDC, last reviewed: October 9, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/signs_symptoms/rashes.html


[17] Photo Credit: Bernard Cohen/Dermatlas.org, Lyme Disease Rashes and Look-alikes, CDC, last reviewed: October 9, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/signs_symptoms/rashes.html


[18] Moniuszko-Malinowska A, Czupryna P, Dunaj J, et al. Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans: various faces of the late form of Lyme borreliosis. Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2018;35(5):490-494. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232541/


[19] Photo credit, Glatz M et al., Clinical Spectrum of Skin Manifestations of Lyme Borreliosis in 204 Children in Austria, Advances in Dermatology and Venereology, Vol 95, Issue 5, Nov 4, 2014. Retrieved from: https://www.medicaljournals.se/acta/content/html/10.2340/00015555-2000


[20] Warshafsky S et al., Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of Lyme disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Volume 65, Issue 6, June 2010, Pages 1137–1144. Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/jac/article-pdf/65/6/1137/2086677/dkq097.pdf


[21] Nadelman R et al., Prophylaxis with Single-Dose Doxycycline for the Prevention of Lyme Disease after an Ixodes scapularis Tick Bite, N Engl J Med 2001; 345:79-84. Retrieved from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM200107123450201


[22] Photo Credit- Ticks Image Gallery, CDC, last reviewed: December 18, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ticks/gallery/index.html


[23] Smith G et al., Management of Tick Bites and Lyme Disease During Pregnancy, J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2012;34(11):1087–1091. Retrieved from: https://www.jogc.com/article/S1701-2163(16)35439-1/pdf


[24] Treatment for erythema migrans, CDC, last reviewed: November 3, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/treatment/index.html


[25] Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome, CDC, last reviewed: November 8, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/postlds/index.html


[26] Ehrlichiosis Transmission, CDC,last reviewed: January 17, 2019. Retrieved from:https://www.cdc.gov/ehrlichiosis/transmission/index.html


[27] Ehrlichiosis Epidemiology and Statistics, CDC, last reviewed: March 26, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ehrlichiosis/stats/index.html


[28] Ehrlichiosis Clinical and Laboratory Diagnosis, CDC, last reviewed: January 17, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ehrlichiosis/healthcare-providers/diagnosis.html


[29] Ehrlichiosis Signs and Symptoms, CDC, last reviewed: January 17, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ehrlichiosis/healthcare-providers/diagnosis.html


[30] Ehrlichiosis Treatment, CDC, last reviewed: January 17, 2019.Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ehrlichiosis/healthcare-providers/treatment.html


[31] Todd S et al., No Visible Dental Staining in Children Treated with Doxycycline for Suspected Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, J Pediatrics 2015;166:1246-51. Retrieved from: http://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476(15)00135-3/pdf?ext=.pdf


[32] Anaplasmosis Transmission, CDC, last reviewed: January 11, 2019. Retrieved from:https://www.cdc.gov/anaplasmosis/transmission/index.html


[33] Anaplasmosis Epidemiology and Statistics, CDC, last reviewed: March 26, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/anaplasmosis/stats/index.html


[34] Anaplasmosis Signs and Symptoms, CDC, last reviewed: January 11, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/anaplasmosis/symptoms/index.html


[35] Anaplasmosis Clinical and Laboratory Diagnosis, CDC, last reviewed: January 11, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/anaplasmosis/healthcare-providers/clinical-lab-diagnosis.html


[36] Anaplasmosis Treatment, CDC, last reviewed: January 11, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/anaplasmosis/healthcare-providers/treatment.html


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