This article explores the diagnosis and treatment of Anaplasmosis, a tick borne illness. It is part three of the four part series “Four Tickborne Diseases: Lyme Disease, Ehrlichiosis, Anaplasmosis and Babesiosis” .
Diagnosis can be challenging, as the tick bite may not have been noticed, clinical symptoms may be non-specific, and laboratory confirmation of infection can be problematic, especially early in the course of these diseases. At times clinicians may need to treat on clinical suspicion alone.
Written for the Curious (Non-Medical) Reader
By Stuart M. Caplen, MD
Anaplasmosis, also known as human granulocytic anaplasmosis, is a tickborne disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum.
Blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in the eastern United States, and western blacklegged ticks, Ixodes pacificus, on the West Coast are the main causes of infection. Coinfections with other tickborne illness such as Lyme disease have been reported. Infections have occasionally been reported through blood transfusion and organ donation.
Peak transmission is during June to November. Two peaks of increased case reporting usually occur, with the first peak during June–July and a smaller peak during October-November. ...
Read more about:
Signs and Symptoms of Early Illness of Anaplasmosis
Late Illness Symptoms of Anaplasmosis
Laboratory Findings in Anaplasmosis
Testing for Anaplasmosis
Treatment of Anaplasmosis
Read PART 1 - Lyme Disease | PART 2 - Ehrlichiosis | PART 3 - Anaplasmosis | PART 4 - Babesia
The conclusion to Part 1-4 of this article is available in the FibonacciLIBRARY
The CME version of this article is available for the medical community with an online CME test in the APP.
Not an APP member? Membership info.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Stuart M. Caplen, MD, FACEP, MSM
Dr. Caplen is a retired emergency medicine physician and former emergency department medical director, who also has a Master of Science in Management degree, and green belt certification in Lean/Six Sigma.
 Tickborne Diseases of the United States, CDC, last reviewed September 22, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ticks/tickbornediseases/overview.html
 Tickborne Diseases of the United States, CDC, 5th edition 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ticks/tickbornediseases/TickborneDiseases-P.pdf
[15A] Signs and Symptoms of Untreated Lyme Disease, CDC, last reviewed: January 15, 2021. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/signs_symptoms/index.html
 Photo credits: Alison Young, Taryn Holman, Yevgeniy Balagula/Dermatlas.org, Lyme Disease Rashes and Look-alikes, CDC, last reviewed: October 9, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/signs_symptoms/rashes.html
 Photo Credit: Bernard Cohen/Dermatlas.org, Lyme Disease Rashes and Look-alikes, CDC, last reviewed: October 9, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/signs_symptoms/rashes.html
 Moniuszko-Malinowska A, Czupryna P, Dunaj J, et al. Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans: various faces of the late form of Lyme borreliosis. Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2018;35(5):490-494. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232541/
 Photo credit, Glatz M et al., Clinical Spectrum of Skin Manifestations of Lyme Borreliosis in 204 Children in Austria, Advances in Dermatology and Venereology, Vol 95, Issue 5, Nov 4, 2014. Retrieved from: https://www.medicaljournals.se/acta/content/html/10.2340/00015555-2000
 Warshafsky S et al., Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of Lyme disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Volume 65, Issue 6, June 2010, Pages 1137–1144. Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/jac/article-pdf/65/6/1137/2086677/dkq097.pdf
 Nadelman R et al., Prophylaxis with Single-Dose Doxycycline for the Prevention of Lyme Disease after an Ixodes scapularis Tick Bite, N Engl J Med 2001; 345:79-84. Retrieved from: https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM200107123450201
 Photo Credit- Ticks Image Gallery, CDC, last reviewed: December 18, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ticks/gallery/index.html
 Smith G et al., Management of Tick Bites and Lyme Disease During Pregnancy, J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2012;34(11):1087–1091. Retrieved from: https://www.jogc.com/article/S1701-2163(16)35439-1/pdf
 Treatment for erythema migrans, CDC, last reviewed: November 3, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/treatment/index.html
 Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome, CDC, last reviewed: November 8, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/postlds/index.html
 Ehrlichiosis Transmission, CDC,last reviewed: January 17, 2019. Retrieved from:https://www.cdc.gov/ehrlichiosis/transmission/index.html
 Ehrlichiosis Epidemiology and Statistics, CDC, last reviewed: March 26, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ehrlichiosis/stats/index.html
 Ehrlichiosis Clinical and Laboratory Diagnosis, CDC, last reviewed: January 17, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ehrlichiosis/healthcare-providers/diagnosis.html
 Ehrlichiosis Signs and Symptoms, CDC, last reviewed: January 17, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ehrlichiosis/healthcare-providers/diagnosis.html
 Ehrlichiosis Treatment, CDC, last reviewed: January 17, 2019.Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/ehrlichiosis/healthcare-providers/treatment.html
 Todd S et al., No Visible Dental Staining in Children Treated with Doxycycline for Suspected Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, J Pediatrics 2015;166:1246-51. Retrieved from: http://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476(15)00135-3/pdf?ext=.pdf
 Anaplasmosis Transmission, CDC, last reviewed: January 11, 2019. Retrieved from:https://www.cdc.gov/anaplasmosis/transmission/index.html
 Anaplasmosis Epidemiology and Statistics, CDC, last reviewed: March 26, 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/anaplasmosis/stats/index.html
 Anaplasmosis Signs and Symptoms, CDC, last reviewed: January 11, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/anaplasmosis/symptoms/index.html
 Anaplasmosis Clinical and Laboratory Diagnosis, CDC, last reviewed: January 11, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/anaplasmosis/healthcare-providers/clinical-lab-diagnosis.html
 Anaplasmosis Treatment, CDC, last reviewed: January 11, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/anaplasmosis/healthcare-providers/treatment.html
IMIT takes pride in its work, and the information published on the IMIT Platform is believed to be accurate and reliable. The IMIT Platform is provided strictly for informational purposes, and IMIT recommends that any medical, diagnostic, or other advice be obtained from a medical professional. Read full disclaimer.