Squinting Patella

Intoeing in Infants and Toddlers

Medical InBrief

by Allan Strongwater, M.D.

Intoeing is observed in many toddlers. It refers to a child’s feet pointing inward while standing, walking or running. Some people refer to intoeing as “pigeon-toed.”

Intoeing cosmetically appears worst shortly after the child begins walking. Intoeing may be measured as the “foot progression angle,” which is the angle the plantigrade foot makes relative to the line of gait progression on the floor. The internal rotation seen in the infant and toddler is almost always bony in etiology rather than simply positional.

The intoeing is a residual finding due to ...

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Allan Strongwater, M.D.

Allan Strongwater was originally educated as an Electrical Engineer. He is now a semi-retired pediatric orthopaedic surgeon who did his surgical training at Yale and his pediatric surgery at Newington Children’s Hospital (University of Connecticut). He has held numerous positions including Chairman of Orthopaedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Services, Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Program Director, Chief of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery and Chairman of Bioengineering. Most recently he has returned to the engineering world as Senior Vice President of Medical Informatics and now he has joined IMIT as Chief Technology Officer.

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